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         The central Narmada Valley in Madhya Pradesh, India, is a region of great natural and cultural significance. The valley is home to a rich and diverse array of flora and fauna, owing to the presence of the Narmada and Tapti rivers, which follow major tectonic lineament. The valley's caves are particularly famous for containing relics of human culture in the form of artistic expressions from the Palaeolithic and later times. These caves offer a unique glimpse into the history of human civilization in the region, and the Quaternary sediments in the area preserve a great wealth of contemporary palaeontological records, including a diverse assemblage of mammalian fossils, archaeological archives, and volcanic ash beds.


       The region's rock and cave art, including sites such as Bhimbetka and Mirzapur, provide valuable insights into the ways in which humans interacted with the landscape over time. The central Narmada valley's records of mammalian existence, including that of humans, cultural tools, and paintings in caves, make it an excellent place to study human evolution in an integrated perspective with changing climate since the Pleistocene time. The oldest known human fossil of the middle Pleistocene age was recovered from the central Narmada valley and is significant from the viewpoint of the origin of early Homo in South Asia.

     Lonar Crater, the only hyper velocity impact crater in basaltic rock, located in Maharashtra. This unique crater was formed approximately 52,000 years ago when a meteor estimated to be traveling at 90,000 km/h and weighing 2 million tonnes slammed into the Earth's surface, creating a massive impact crater, which is now know for its unusual properties, including the fact that it is both alkaline and saline at the same time. This has prompted scientists to study the lake to understand the unique combination of environmental factors that give rise to this unusual phenomenon. The crater is surrounded by a ring of fascinating temples, which serve as a testament to the cultural significance of the site.




        The Meghalayan Age’s Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), is located in Mawmluh cave in Meghalaya, northeast India. Mawmluh cave is one of the longest and deepest caves in India, and its unique conditions were suitable for preserving chemical signs of the transition in ages.

Housed at the BSIP Museum, Lucknow, the Indian stalagmite defines the beginning of the Meghalayan Age. It’s Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is Mawmluh cave formation in Meghalaya, Northeast India

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